Health Risk Assessment: A Vital Tool for Community Paramedics

The role of a community paramedic goes beyond responding to emergencies. Today’s community paramedics are often frontline healthcare providers, bridging the gap between conventional emergency response and primary care. As these healthcare professionals transition to a more community-focused role, the ability to conduct a health risk assessment (HRA) becomes increasingly vital.

What is Health Risk Assessment?

A Health Risk Assessment (HRA) is a systematic approach to identifying and evaluating potential health risks in a patient. It helps predict possible health issues, allowing for proactive interventions. HRAs are used in primary care and occupational health and are increasingly relevant for community paramedics. Insurers often contract with EMS services and fire departments to conduct health risk assessments on patients that insurers have had difficulty locating and are at risk of appearing next in the emergency department. 

How Long Does A Health Risk Assessment Take to Complete?

HRA’s depth varies among agencies but typically takes 15-20 minutes to complete (Agarwal, et Al., 2017) in an uncomplicated assessment.

Why is HRA Important for Community Paramedics?

  1. Early Intervention: Community paramedics can intervene by evaluating health risks, potentially preventing the onset of certain conditions or complications, and reducing the need for a 911 call or ED visit.
  2. Resource Allocation: Knowing the health risks of a patient and community allows paramedics to allocate resources effectively, ensuring that the most vulnerable groups get timely and adequate care.
  3. Building Trust: Engaging with the community and taking proactive measures can build trust and rapport, which is vital for the community paramedic model. This also helps the EMS or fire department in its emergency response role. 
  4. Improving Overall Community Health: By identifying and addressing health risks, community paramedics can contribute significantly to improving the overall health of the communities they serve.
  5. New Revenue Streams: EMS and fire departments nationwide are experiencing higher operating expenses, low reimbursement, and budget cuts. HRAs provide a revenue stream to support an organization’s community and 911 medicine duties. Operating expenses for a community paramedic in a typical vehicle are much lower than for an ambulance or fire engine responding to an emergency. Community paramedic programs save hospitals and health systems millions of dollars annually. In our local area, most health risk assessments are performed and fit the $130-$136 treat and release tariff.

How to Conduct a Health Risk Assessment?

A Health Risk Assessment (HRA) stands as a cornerstone for understanding an individual’s health risks, monitoring health changes over time, and paving the way for preventive care. For community paramedics, this tool is about collecting data and fostering an environment that enables proactive health management. Here’s how the process is typically completed:

1. Introduction to the HRA: 

Begin by explaining to the patient what a Health Risk Assessment is. Emphasize that it’s a tool designed to provide insights into their current health status and potential risks. Ensure they understand that the feedback from the HRA will be personalized, aiming to guide them in making decisions that can enhance their health and well-being. Community paramedics often complete a comprehensive physical assessment in addition to the HRA questionnaire.

Need to review the components of a comprehensive physical assessment? Look at these documents from NREMT for a list of areas to assess in adults and pediatrics.

2. Administering the Questionnaire:

This is the primary data collection phase. Ensure the patient is comfortable and understands the significance of each question. See a sample Health Risk Assessment form from CarePatron.

Demographic Details: Collect basic information such as age and gender. This foundational data often influences health risk factors like age, gender, and ethnicity. 

Lifestyle Behaviors: Dive into daily routines and behaviors, including exercise patterns, eating habits, and substance use, like alcohol and tobacco. These factors play a significant role in overall health and can reveal areas for potential intervention.

Emotional Health: Understand the patient’s mental and emotional state. Questions about mood, current stressors, and significant life events can provide insights into their emotional well-being, which often intertwines with physical health.

Physical Health Indicators: Collect data on measurable health metrics, including weight, blood pressure, and cholesterol levels. This data gives an objective view of the patient’s current health status.

Health History: Discuss any current and previous health conditions. Medical history can offer context to other data and help identify patterns or recurring issues.

Preventive Screenings: Inquire about recent health screenings or tests, as they can give a clearer picture of potential underlying health issues.

Readiness for Change: Gauge the patient’s motivation and readiness to make health-improving changes. This information helps tailor feedback and recommendations in the next phase.

3. Analysis and Personalized Feedback:

Once the questionnaire is complete, review the responses to identify potential health risks and areas of concern. When discussing the results, emphasize the risks and the positive aspects of the patient’s health. Provide actionable feedback tailored to their specific situation. If a patient indicates readiness to change certain behaviors, offer guidance and resources to support those changes.

4. Collaborative Planning:

Engage the patient in creating a plan for their health journey. Considering their readiness to change, propose practical steps they can take, be it altering dietary habits, incorporating exercises, or seeking further medical tests. The aim is to make the patient active in their health journey, thereby increasing the chances of sustained health improvements.

In essence, the Health Risk Assessment isn’t just a checklist; for community paramedics, it’s an opportunity to engage deeply with the patient, empowering them with knowledge and helping them navigate their health path proactively.

The Way Forward

As community paramedics further integrate into the fabric of primary healthcare, tools like HRAs become indispensable. They help identify and mitigate health risks and place the community paramedic at the forefront of preventive healthcare.

To make the most of HRAs, continuous training and upskilling are essential. Embracing technology, collaborating with other healthcare professionals, and engaging genuinely with the community can elevate the role of the community paramedic, making them a central figure in the health and well-being of the communities they serve.

The Changing Role of Community Paramedics

Historically, the primary function of paramedics was to respond to acute emergencies, stabilize patients, and transport them to hospitals. However, the landscape of healthcare is rapidly changing. Community paramedics are now an integral part of the broader healthcare system, bridging emergency care and primary care. They have been tasked with new responsibilities, including managing chronic diseases, post-discharge follow-ups, and health promotion and prevention.

The Need for Proactive Care

The healthcare industry worldwide is recognizing the significance of preventive care versus reactive care. By identifying health risks before they become significant issues, healthcare professionals can drastically reduce the burden on the system, improve patient outcomes, and reduce costs.

For community paramedics, this proactive approach is even more pertinent. They often serve communities that may have limited access to regular healthcare services. By identifying and addressing health risks early on, community paramedics can ensure that minor health issues don’t escalate into major emergencies.

Tools and Technology in HRA

With the advancement of technology, community paramedics now have access to tools that can make HRAs more efficient and accurate. Mobile health apps, wearable devices, and telehealth platforms offer real-time data, which can be invaluable in assessing health risks.

Moreover, integrating artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning can help in predictive analytics, giving community paramedics insights into potential future health risks based on current data patterns. Embracing these technologies will be crucial for community paramedics looking to conduct effective and comprehensive HRAs.

Collaborative Approach

It’s essential to remember that while community paramedics play a crucial role, health risk assessment is most effective when it’s a collaborative effort. Working closely with primary care physicians, community health workers, and even social workers ensures that patients receive comprehensive care outside the hospital. Collaborative efforts can also lead to community-wide health initiatives, such as vaccination drives, health education seminars, or fitness programs, targeting the most prominent health risks identified in the HRA.


Health Risk Assessments represent a pivotal shift in healthcare, emphasizing prevention over cure. For community paramedics, this tool is not just about identifying health risks. It’s about community engagement, building trust, and ensuring the well-being of the populations they serve.

By integrating HRAs into their practice, continuously updating their skills, and collaborating with other healthcare professionals, community paramedics can redefine emergency care’s boundaries, paving the way for a more holistic, proactive, and community-centered approach to health.


Agarwal, G., Angeles, R., Pirrie, M., Marzanek, F., McLeod, B., Parascandalo, J., & Dolovich, L. (2017). Effectiveness of a community paramedic-led health assessment and education initiative in a seniors’ residence building: the Community Health Assessment Program through Emergency Medical Services (CHAP-EMS). BMC emergency medicine17(1), 8.

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